Nursing Outlook; Heather L. Abrahim, E. Alison Holman; Published November 17, 2022; DOI: 10.1016/j.outlook.2022.11.003



The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the well-being of nursing professionals, especially long-term and acute care nurses, many of whom are nurses of color.


We examine the evidence and gaps in the literature addressing psychological well-being of racial/ethnic minority RN’s in the U.S. during COVID-19.


We searched eight databases during March 2022 and used Joanna Briggs’ Scoping Review Methodology and PRISMA-ScR reporting standards.


Seven studies met inclusion criteria. Two exclusively examined nurses; five reported findings from heterogeneous samples of health care workers. No significant racial/ethnic differences in well-being were reported among health care workers. Among nurses, if a difference existed, White nurses reported decreased psychological well-being relative to ethnic and racial minority nurses. Two studies report modest racial/ethnic differences in nurses’ psychological well-being.


Significant gaps in the literature remain; future studies should analyze groups of health care workers separately, clearly identify racial and ethnic groups, and examine the role of respondents’ work setting.


Anxiety; COVID-19; Depression; Job burnout; Nurses; Psychological well-being; Racial disparities; Scoping review.