Multimedia Tools and Applications; Kianoush Kiania, Seyed Mahdi Jameii, Amir Masoud Rahmani; Published February 17, 2023; DOI: 10.1007/s11042-023-14488-w


In today’s world, health and medicine play an undeniable role in human life. Traditional and current Electronic Health Records (EHR) systems that are used to exchange information between medical stakeholders (patients, physicians, insurance companies, pharmaceuticals, medical researchers, etc.) suffer weaknesses in terms of security and privacy due to having centralized architecture. Blockchain technology ensures the privacy and security of EHR systems thanks to the use of encryption. Moreover, due to its decentralized nature, this technology prevents central failure and central attack points. In this paper, a systematic literature review (SLR) is proposed to analyze the existing Blockchain-based approaches for improving privacy and security in electronic health systems. The research methodology, paper selection process, and the search query are explained. 51 papers returned from our search criteria published between 2018 and Dec 2022 are reviewed. The main ideas, type of Blockchain, evaluation metrics, and used tools of each selected paper are discussed in detail. Finally, future research directions, open challenges, and some issues are discussed.


Blockchain; Electronic Health Records (HER)‎; Privacy; SLR; Security; Smart contract.