Journal of Advanced Nursing; Candace W. Burton, Charles A. Downs, Thomas Hughes, Natalie Lambert, Heather L. Abrahim, Maria Giraldo Herrera, Yong Huang, Amir Rahmani, Jung-Ah Lee, Rana Chakraborty, Melissa D. Pinto; Published August 29, 2022; DOI: 10.1111/jan.15426



This paper proposes a novel, trauma-informed, conceptual model of care for Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 illness (PASC).


This paper describes essential elements, linkages and dimensions of the model that affect PASC patient experiences and the potential impact of trauma-informed care on outcomes.

Data sources:

PASC is a consequence of the global pandemic, and a new disease of which little is known. Our model was derived from the limited available studies, expert clinical experience specific to PASC survivors and publicly available social media narratives authored by PASC survivors.

Implications for nursing:

The model provides a critical and novel framework for the understanding and care of persons affected by PASC. This model is aimed at the provision of nursing care, with the intention of reducing the traumatic impacts of the uncertain course of this disease, a lack of defined treatment options and difficulties in seeking care. The use of a trauma-informed care approach to PASC patients can enhance nurses’ ability to remediate and ameliorate both the traumatic burden of and the symptoms and experience of the illness.


Applying a trauma-informed perspective to care of PASC patients can help to reduce the overall burden of this complex condition. Owing to the fundamentally holistic perspective of the nursing profession, nurses are best positioned to implement care that addresses multiple facets of the PASC experience.


The proposed model specifically addresses the myriad ways in which PASC may affect physical as well as mental and psychosocial dimensions of health. The model particularly seeks to suggest means of supporting patients who have already experienced a life-threatening illness and are now coping with its long-term impact. Since the scope of this impact is not yet defined, trauma-informed care for PASC patients is likely to reduce the overall health and systems burdens of this complex condition.