Western Journal of Nursing Research; Michael V. Bueno, Jo-Ana D. Chase; published May 25, 2022; DOI: 10.1177/01939459221099672


This systematic review explores gender differences in adverse psychosocial and role-related outcomes of family caregivers of older adults with chronic illnesses. Data sources for the systematic review included CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. Eligible primary research focused on examining gender-based differences in psychological and emotional outcomes (e.g., burden, depression, stress) among family caregivers of an older adult with chronic illness. In total, 16 studies were included in the review with most studies using a cross-sectional design and conducted outside of the United States. Studies reported on gender differences in health outcomes such as burden, stress, and anxiety. Women caregivers had overall higher negative outcomes, but men may have more intense difficulty during the initial caregiver transition phase. Resources to address caregiver health should consider the caregiver’s gender. As the older adult population grows, more caregiver research is needed and future studies to include more male caregivers.