Sanghyuk S. Shin, Catherine L. Carpenter, Maria L. Ekstrand, Qiao Wang, Surbhi Grover, Nicola M. Zetola, Kartik Yadav, Sanjeev Sinha, Adeline M. Nyamathi

Int J STD AIDS. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2020 May 1.

Published in final edited form as: Int J STD AIDS. 2019 May; 30(6): 586–595. Published online 2019 Feb 27.


Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death among women in low and middle-income countries, and women living with HIV are at high risk for cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of cervical cancer and pre-cancer lesions and to examine cervical cancer knowledge among women living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. We conducted cytology-based screening and administered a standardized questionnaire among 598 HIV-infected women. We found 5 (0.8%), 39 (6.5%), 29 (4.9%), and 4 (0.7%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and squamous cervical carcinoma (SCC), respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, ASCUS/LSIL was independently associated with >16 years old at first sexual encounter and smokeless tobacco use. We found no factors associated with HSIL/SCC. In total, 101 women (16.9%) had heard of cervical cancer and 28 (27.7%) of them correctly identified HIV infections as a risk factor. In light of the high prevalence of pre-cancer lesions and low level of cervical cancer knowledge in our study population, focused interventions are needed to improve cervical cancer literacy and prevention among rural women living with HIV.